testing 23

Positive Contractions and Short Forms – Simple Chart

A Contraction is basically a short form of a word or words and the missing letter is then replaced with an apostrophe. These can be a verb, a modal verb or an auxiliary verb – briefly explained after the chart.

Contractions are used very often and mostly in informal everyday speech and writing but not really appropriate for formal speech or formal writing.

This table shows you how to make the short forms of 5 different verbs.

You can see the negated form of many commonly used verbs in one of my other posts.

Take a look.



I amArrow Rotate right I’mI willArrow Rotate right I’llI wouldArrow Rotate right I’dI hadArrow Rotate right I’dI haveArrow Rotate right I’ve


you are Arrow Rotate right you’reyou willArrow Rotate right you’llyou wouldArrow Rotate right you’dyou hadArrow Rotate right you’dyou haveArrow Rotate right you’ve


he is Arrow Rotate right he’she willArrow Rotate right he’llhe wouldArrow Rotate right he’dhe hadArrow Rotate right he’dhe hasArrow Rotate righthe’s


she is Arrow Rotate right she’sshe willArrow Rotate right she’llshe wouldArrow Rotate right she’dshe hadArrow Rotate right she’dshe hasArrow Rotate right she’s


it is Arrow Rotate right it’sit will Arrow Rotate right it’llit wouldArrow Rotate right it’dit hadArrow Rotate right it’dit hasArrow Rotate rightit’s


we are Arrow Rotate right we’rewe will Arrow Rotate right we’llwe wouldArrow Rotate rightwe’dwe hadArrow Rotate right we’dwe haveArrow Rotate right we’ve


they are Arrow Rotate right they’rethey will Arrow Rotate right they’llthey wouldArrow Rotate right they’dthey hadArrow Rotate right they’dthey hadArrow Rotate right they’ve


that is Arrow Rotate right that’sthat will Arrow Rotate right that’llthat wouldArrow Rotate rightthat’dthat hadArrow Rotate right that’dthat hasArrow Rotate right that’s


there isArrow Rotate right there’sthere willArrow Rotate right there’llthere wouldArrow Rotate rightthere would’vethere hadArrow Rotate right there’dthere hasArrow Rotate right there’s


who is Arrow Rotate right who’swho will Arrow Rotate right who’llwho wouldArrow Rotate rightwho’dwho hadArrow Rotate rightwho’dwho hasArrow Rotate right who’s


why isArrow Rotate right why’swhy willArrow Rotate right why’llwhy wouldArrow Rotate rightwhy’dwhy hadArrow Rotate right why’dwhy haveArrow Rotate right why’d

A Verb

  • A word used to describe an action (eat), non-action (to be)
  • They change in tense e.g.: I eat an apple (Simple Present) or I ate an apple (Simple Past)
  • Shows what the subject or clause is doing
  • They are both needed and indispensable in any sentence

Modal Auxiliary Verb

  • A verb used to indicate modality (to express a person intention, mood – “would you go if you could”)
  • A verb used with another verb to express tense or mood (she must go to bed early)
  • They can change the meaning of other verbs in a sentence.
  • A modal auxiliary verb expresses necessity, suggestions, requests, a piece of advice, a likelihood, or a possibility.
  • There are 10 modal auxiliary verbs in English: could, can, will, would, may, might, shall, should, ought and must.
  • Most can be reduced to their short form, as shown below.

Modal Verb with“To Have”

Positive Short Form

Negative Short Form

would havewould’vewouldn’t
might havemight’vemightn’t
must havemust’vemustn’t
could havecould’vecouldn’t
can havecan’t
should haveshould’veshouldn’t
shall haveshallshan’t

Primary Auxiliary Verbs

  • These are normally related to as “helping verbs”.
  • They add functional meaning.
  • They generally accompany a main verb to outline its tense.
  • There are 3 primary auxiliary verbs: to do, to have and to be.

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